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BIO Coffee Talks: February 2018

Who: Karen Kohfeld

Professor, School of Resource and Environmental Management Simon Fraser University

What: The Ocean's Role in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Changes During Ice Age Cycles

Ever since scientists discovered from polar ice cores that carbon dioxide levels were about 33% lower during ice ages compared to warm climate periods, they have been proposing theories to understand why. Since the ocean holds approximately 50 times more carbon than the atmosphere, oceanic processes are thought to be responsible. A range of physical and biological oceanic processes have been put forth to explain these fluctuations, and many can explain at least part of the total glacial-interglacial signal. However, Earth system models have yet to simulate carbon dioxide changes over a full ice-age cycle. This presentation will show how the fossil record can be used to infer long-term changes in marine productivity, ocean temperatures, ocean circulation, westerly winds, and sea-ice cover, and how these data can be pieced together to understand the sequential timing of processes affecting atmospheric CO2 concentrations during the last full glacial cycle (130,000 years).

When: Friday, February 2, 2018

Where: 10am, George Needler Boardroom, Room VS-427, van Steenburgh Building, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia


Who: Brian Sanderson

Acadia Centre for Estuarine Research

What: A multidisciplinary analysis of: Bay of Fundy tides, in-stream turbines and marine animals

Efficient, Effective and Ecologically Easygoing

The Bay of Fundy has, arguably, the highest tides on Earth. Every day, about 20-30 giga Watts of tidal power are dissipated by frictional forces acting on those huge tides. We gaze out from the shoreline and wonder, can we harvest some of that energy in an environmentally friendly way?

The time has come to shine some light on what it might mean, and what it would take, to use in-stream turbines to harvest power in a way that is: effective, efficient and environmentally friendly. It is not enough to know how tides work and how turbines work and how marine animals behave. Rather, we need to know how all these things work together.

How turbine design and placement changes the tides and, in turn, how that influences the amount of power available for extraction. What does it really mean for a turbine to be efficient? How does harvestable energy change due to requirements for safety of marine animals?

It turns out that some relatively simple calculations can be used to address the above questions, and many more. The approach here is to keep calculations as simple as possible but not to make them more simple than is necessary.

When: Friday, February 9, 2018

Where: 10am, George Needler Boardroom, Room VS-427, van Steenburgh Building, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia


Who: Jean Philippe Paquin

Bedford Institute of Oceanography

What: Ocean Protection Plan: Applications for drift in Saint John Harbour and beyond

The oceanography sub-initiative of the Ocean Protection Plan requires more accurate forecasting of ocean currents and water levels etc. in the coastal and nearshore waters. In order for model development to meet the operational requirements of clients (CHS and ECCC), a decision was made to perform a comparative evaluation of two of the modelling systems used within DFO-Science, NEMO and FVCOM. Both models were deployed to cover Saint John Harbour (N.B.) where strong tides and significant river runoff are present. A strict experimental design was made to allow direct comparison of the two models with observational data. In this talk, we present the model development, main results and experiences learned from that comparison, with a focus on NEMO. After demonstrating the capability of the current version of NEMO, an outline will be provided on ongoing work of model improvement, testing on new features of the model, and plans for applications to other ports.

When: Friday, February 16, 2018

Where: 10am, George Needler Boardroom, Room VS-427, van Steenburgh Building, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia


Who: MacAuley

What: Canadian Hydrographic Service

When: Friday, February 23, 2018

Where: 10am, George Needler Boardroom, Room VS-427, van Steenburgh Building, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia


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Last Modified: 2018-02-14