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BIO Coffee Talks: April 2018

Who: Rachel Horwitz

Bedford Institute of Oceanography

What: Seasonal, diel, and tidal CO2 variation in Grand Passage, Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia

Assessing the vulnerability of marine ecosystems to acidification arising from anthropogenic CO2 requires a detailed understanding of the system's natural variability. A cabled-to-shore observatory was installed in Grand Passage, a tidal channel in the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, to collect a year-long time series of pCO2. The high-frequency measurements are used to quantify this CO2 variability over tidal, daily, and seasonal time scales. We demonstrate the interaction between the daily and tidal cycles, determine the phase relationship between tidal currents and carbonate system variables, and estimate lateral transport by tidal pumping.

When: Friday, April 6, 2018

Where: 10am, George Needler Boardroom, Room VS-427, van Steenburgh Building, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia

Who: Igor Yashayaev

Bedford Institute of Oceanography

What: Labrador Sea IDIOMS - International Deep-ocean Integrated Observing and Modelling System

Only two weeks separate us from the day (April 26) when we will leave for the 30th BIO occupation of the AR7W line across the Labrador Sea. Annual monitoring of this world-renowned oceanographic section that started in 1990 (and missed only once since) signifies Canadian contribution to the world's climate research and leads to establishing and strengthening an international ocean observation network in the North Atlantic. In nearly three decades of systematic multidisciplinary studies, the number of challenging problems and interesting research questions concerning the Labrador Sea and its role in the ocean's climate and ecosystem has only increased. Concepts, interpretations, conclusions are not always in agreement with each other. How are the three processes - a possible acceleration in the Arctic and Greenland melting, winter convection and Atlantic overturning circulation - interrelated? What is the present state of convection in the Labrador Sea and what can be expected in a few years from now, a decade, a century? How did it develop over the past thousand years? Is the cooling of subpolar basins a sign of stronger or weaker overturning? No, we won't be able to answer many of these questions, but may be able to identify challenges for future research and reemphasize the importance of the consolidated monitoring efforts.

A good example is relating recent changes in the strength of winter convection to the time-varying atmospheric forcing. We know that the winter of 2015 was extremely cold in our region causing the ocean and land to lose much of their heat, and we saw deep convection in that year. The three winters that followed - 2016, 2017, 2018 - were noticeably milder, maybe except for 2016, but still not as cold as 2015. So, we wonder if the ocean has really followed the change in the atmospheric forcing since 2015 mixing less and less...

Three ocean models are now being used to simulate changes in water mass formation and export in the subpolar North Atlantic. We are now able to apply common approaches to analyze both observations and ocean model outputs. This co-synthesis of real ocean samples and model simulations opens new possibilities for interpretation of the monitoring results and for ongoing and future research on the key topics of interest to many.

When: Friday, April 13, 2018

Where: 10am, George Needler Boardroom, Room VS-427, van Steenburgh Building, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia

Who: Kristina Boerder

Co-authors: Boris Worm, Derek Tittensor, Dalhousie University

What: Tracking the global footprint of fisheries

Although fishing is one of the most widespread activities by which humans harvest natural resources, its global footprint is poorly understood and has never been directly quantified. With the advent of novel tools for monitoring and enforcement such as satellite-based vessel tracking data (AIS) and the Global Fishing Watch initiative, this is changing rapidly. We can now not only very precisely map and analyse fishing effort on a global scale, but also track the behaviour of individual fishing vessels, from transshipping their catch at sea to fishing around marine protected areas. From global patterns to local movements, I will present some of the latest findings from space.

When: Friday, April 20, 2018

Where: 10am, George Needler Boardroom, Room VS-427, van Steenburgh Building, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia

Who: Nick Jeffery

Bedford Institute of Oceanography

What: Integrating Genomics with Marine Conservation – Potential Applications in Marine Protected Area development and monitoring

Current genomic tools are revealing cryptic population structure in marine species otherwise thought to be large, single stocks. High-throughput sequencing can reveal local adaptation, environmental associations, and connectivity in aquatic fishes and invertebrates and this information can be used to inform management and mitigation strategies. I'll discuss an interesting case study on the invasive European green crab in eastern Canada and the United States, and compare this to four other species of commercial importance. I will then discuss the potential applications of both high throughput sequencing and environmental DNA (“eDNA”) to aid in the establishment of a Marine Protected Area network and to help monitor biodiversity in these MPAs.

When: Friday, April 27, 2018

Where: 10am, George Needler Boardroom, Room VS-427, van Steenburgh Building, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia


Last Modified: 2018-05-03